Defense phytosanitary

trattamento_endoterapico_alberi

Green World Consulting carries out the decontamination of viruses, bacteria and micro-organisms through the use of disinfectants registered with the Ministry of Health and with specific equipment.

The treatments are effective against most strains of viral and bacterial known, as well as mycobacteria and fungi.

 

Diseases that have spread in recent years

Weevil ferruginous palms: the Killer Palm

• Agent of the disease: Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliver (fam. Weevil – January Beetle)
• Host plant: All kinds of palm but especially the date palm plant tissues because of its very tender and rich in nutrients, coconut and ornamental palms of the genus Phoenix. Palm trees are affected by a number of insects, but the ferruginous Weevil is considered among the most dangerous.
• Description and life cycle: The insect, probably from southern India, has since spread to Southeast Asia, where it is known for the massive damage to plantations of palm trees. In the early 80′s began the first reports of this pathogen in the Arab Emirates, Egypt, Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian territories and, in the late ’90s was also found in Spain and in Italy.

punteruolo_rosso

The adult Rhynchophorus ferrugineus has a typical reddish color, which owes its name, with black stripes of varying number and shape. The body length may vary between 19 and 45 mm.

Males and females will mate several times during the life cycle. The females lay their eggs in the holes with the rostrum in both healthy plant parts, both in wounds and scars already present on the plant. The total number of eggs laid by a female can vary by several tens to several hundred (200-700). The closing takes place in about 3-5 days from the eggs and young larvae emerge apodous long about 5 cm of whitish color and with a typical head of brown color. The small larva immediately begins to feed on plant tissues digging long tunnels in the direction of the apical part of the plant. At maturity, the larvae cease their activities to build cocoons using plant fibers reduced to very thin wires and long.
Overwinter within the host affected, so the insect is able to develop attacks at any time of year.

 

Adults, larvae, pupae and cocoons of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliver

ciclo-biologico

The insect can attack the foliage is that the trunk of the palm generally at a height of 1.50 to 2.00 meters above the ground.
The damage is caused by the young larvae which, with their galleries can compromise the stability of the palm up to determine the fall. From the openings on the trunk begins to flow a resinous substance of brown color formed by the larval excretions mixed vegetable juices. This fluid, due to the attack of bacteria, in a short time become malodorous and begin to leak along the shaft of the affected plants carrying with it also a part of the sawdust produced during excavation. Followed by the decay of some leaves to the death of the plant that occurs over a period of 1-2 years depending on the age and health status early.

 

Visual inspection of palm attacked of insect 

–Defence : Prevention and treatment
The real cure, however, is the use of chemical-based phosphate esters and other active ingredients such as Carbaryl, Chlorpyrifos and Deltamethrin Diazinon, distributed by injecting the trunks or interventions to the entire head of hair. The injections are given by means of needles and PVC tubes with a diameter of 16 mm. Not less used are also the synthetic sex pheromone traps and baits food taken for mass trapping and for the control of the weevil.

Dr. Recentememte. Metwaly began to experience a treatment based sull’endoterapia. The mixture injected is mainly composed of chemical products of the latest generation, and in some cases, of organic products. In both cases the results are very encouraging.

Of course, it is recommended stepping up customs checks of imported material to prevent further circulation of the pathogen.

Anoplophora

-Agent Of the disease:
Anoplophora, common name White-Spotted or Longhorned Beetle Asian Longhorned Beetle – Beetle Gender – Family cerambycida

- Host plants:
  The Aplofore can affect around 60 species of woody plants, including poplar, oak, locust, pear, apple, Prunus, sycamore, maple, willow and citrus. The attack can be forwarded either on plants already weakened both on healthy individuals, contrary to what occurs for most of Cerambycidae.

Description and life cycle:
  Adults black and white spots are 25-40 mm long and are equipped with long antennae that in males reach the 1.8 to 2.5 mm, while females generally do not exceed 1.2 mm. The females, in general, are longer than males and can lay about 30-70 that are placed beneath the bark slots from the typical shape of T. The larvae are apodous with yellow coloration and with head brown. They reach 45 mm in length. The insect is generally able to complete its life cycle in a year except in the case of particularly unfavorable climates where the cycle may last for 2 years. Wintering can be done either at the stage of egg larva. The adults emerge from the trunks in the summer and immediately begin to feed on the leaves.

-Review Of view:
  The main damage is caused by the larvae because of the tunnels in the trunk, while the secondary damage are products of adults during the Food and ovoposition. The presence of the larvae is manifested for the pile of sawdust and excrement that protrude from the openings of the tunnels.

- Defence:
  The only method of treatment has proved effective so far has been the endotherapy

BLASTOFAGO DESTROYER OF PINES

• Blastophagus piniperda
• Class. insects
• Order: Coleoptera
• Family: Bark beetles
The Blastofago is an insect belonging to the order Coleoptera, Scolytidae family that lives mostly at the expense of Pinus nigra and Pinus silvestris.

The adults, of variable length between 3.5 and 5 mm, have a characteristic black color shiny and are provided with antennas. The larvae, on the contrary, are whitish and flat base with a brown head and can reach 10 mm in length.

The life cycle

larva-di-blastophagus-minoretipiche-gallerie-scavate-dal-blastofago-del-pino_Blastophagus-piniperda

The blatofago overwinters in the adult stage within tunnels in the bone marrow of woody jets. Towards the end of February or the beginning of the spring season, females pierce the bark of the trunk and branches and then dig long tunnels (galleries nursery) and longitudinal straight equipped with vestibule in which to lay their eggs. The galleries nursery are recognizable to have a constant diameter and to be kept clear of debris. Since the closure of the eggs come out of the young larvae, each of which immediately sets about digging a tunnel in the direction perpendicular to the mother tongue. The diameters of the larval galleries have diameters increasing because of the increasing size of individuals and containing excrement and cut wood produced during the excavation.


The larvae do not feed directly to the wood, very poor nourishment, but introduced symbiotic fungi in the tree from the host mother, have developed due to the optimal conditions of darkness, temperature and humidity in the tunnel. After reaching maturity, the larvae carry the end of the channel a pupal chamber in which pupate to end the metamorphoses. The set of galleries maternal and larval takes the name of the reproductive system, according to the species that can take different forms (Figure 1).

 

sclolitidi-floematici

In May-June is the flicker of neo-adults through specially drilled holes in the bark. The adults swarm to plants growing in good condition favoring the most vigorous shoots of 1-2 years, located in the upper part of the canopy and outside, where there are the necessary food resources to adequately develop the reproductive organs. And it is within these buds than adults dig long tunnels up to the medulla, leading to an initial reddening of the needles followed by a subsequent drying of the shoot tip or fall.

Generally blatofago performs one to two cycles per year in relation to climatic conditions.

 

Insect dangerous

During these excavations, a large part of the lymphatic vessels of the plants are damaged, causing a progressive and irreversible deterioration of the affected plants, which, in a few years, will be destined to die. Although the cortex may be affected by the attacks undertaken by Blastofago piniperda in which stakeholders from the excavations, in fact, rise, chapped and you stand apart exposing the plant to further attack pathogenic and weatherability.

The period of harmful insect, therefore lasts from March to October

endoterapia-applicazione

Protection and restoration techniques
In the case of infestations in place, the first thing we recommend is the timely removal and destruction of affected parties before that happens before the swarming of adults.

Curative and preventive interventions can be conducted through of endotherapy  technology in increasing popularity because of its many advantages.

Among the newer techniques that are providing very good results should remember the Endotherapy pressure forced pesticides with chemical or biological systemic low environmental impact, injected into the trunk and then translocated throughout the plant through the vascular system of the plant. Treatment endotherapic can boast a decent persistence, capable of protecting the plant throughout the growing season.

Thanks of endotherapy can be associated with treatment even against the processionary of Pines paratisi also considered one of the most dangerous primarily because of its danger to humans and animals.

In this regard, please note that the Ministerial Decree No. 17 of 1998 sets clear provisions on the fight against the pine processionary “Thaumetopea pityocampa” (omitted) and decreed as follows:
“The fight against the pine processionary” Thaumetopea pityocampa “is mandatory throughout the territory of the Italian Republic, in areas where the presence of the insect seriously threatens the production and survival of arboreal population might pose a risk to human health humans and animals. “

Quotation request