Earlier 8oo, in some oases of the Sahara in Morocco, at the foot of the Atlas Mountains, the date palms began to wither and die. On the affected plants, the leaves took a whitish color, hence the name Arab delta disease: bayoud.
× Ads By minibarDai first outbreaks, the disease spread slowly, but surely, from oasis to oasis. It took almost a century to invade the whole of Morocco, then spread to Algeria in 1898 oasis Beni Ounif in 1900 Bechar and so on westward and southward through the Algerian Sahara, slowly at first, the 50 in then rapidly with 1′intensificarsi media. Now the disease has arrived in M’zab, oasis next to Tunisia: In Salah, Gardhaia, El Golea. In an effort to halt the spread 1′ulteriore, Algeria has ordered strict measures to prevent the transport of infected palm oasis to another and an army is committed to enforce them.
The Tunisian border is closed for the palm trees. The damage was very serious, far more than the mere loss of palm trees and dates. In Morocco, died 10 million palm trees on just under 15 and those surviving are varieties of low value. The best variety, Bou. feggous provided dates in demand on the European markets, especially London, since the seventeenth century. Morocco was a country among the major exporters of dates; is now forced to import them. In Algeria, more than 3 million palm trees of the best varieties (Deglet Nour) died. In the remaining pristine oases in the desert strip on the border east of the country, are henceforth produced two-thirds of Algerian dates.
Serious, dangerous also the social and environmental consequences. The population of the oases of the Sahara, from Morocco to Tunisia, is over one and a half million people living on agriculture, as opposed to nomads of the steppe. In an agricultural oasis is perfect which is based on palm, in whose symbolic shadow we grow vegetables, edible plants and forage and breed pets. The palm trees give food – the date is the bread of the Sahara – wood construction and work, fuel, raw material for handicrafts.
In the oasis the sale of dates is 1′unica, or almost the only, source of income for the people who populate them. In the oasis, built by a man with a patient, painstaking work of water supply, underground water lasted centuries, when the ‘Bayoud destroys the palm trees, 1′agricoltura disappears, the economic and social life stops, the environment is degraded steppe. Start the process of desertification. The population migrates to the coast, already overcrowded; followed by tremendous adjustment problems and misery for the people thrown out of their oasis by a microscopic fungus, even a special form (albedinis) of Fusarium oxysporum. From the ground, it penetrates the roots and invades the trachea, the tiny capillaries that transport 1′acqua up to crown. The palm tree, they say, has its feet in the water and its head in the sun. If you dissects the trunk of a palm tree is infected, there have been some barely ten vascular bundles darkened because infected thousands still healthy. Still, that is enough to deadly fungillo to reach the branch and then the apical bud, the heart of the plant. How suffered a heart attack, the great palm dies. With it dies and comes back 1′oasi the Sahel, the great thirst.
- Defence: The only treatment method yet proved effective for the Fusarium oxysporum is the Endotherapy low pressure oil united Biorynk.